nucleus.slice

Slice

A Slice represents a subset of DatasetItems in your Dataset.

SliceBuilderFilterAutotag

Helper class for specifying an autotag filter for building a slice.

SliceBuilderFilters

Optionally apply filters to the collection of dataset items when building the slice.

SliceBuilderMethods

Which method to use for sampling the dataset items.

SliceType

Types of slices supported by Nucleus.

class nucleus.slice.Slice(slice_id, client)

A Slice represents a subset of DatasetItems in your Dataset.

Slices are subsets of your Dataset that unlock curation and exploration workflows. Instead of thinking of your Datasets as collections of data, it is useful to think about them as a collection of Slices. For instance, your dataset may contain different weather scenarios, traffic conditions, or highway types.

Perhaps your Models perform poorly on foggy weather scenarios; it is then useful to slice your dataset into a “foggy” slice, and fine-tune model performance on this slice until it reaches the performance you desire.

Slices cannot be instantiated directly and instead must be created in the dashboard, or via API endpoint using Dataset.create_slice().

import nucleus

client = nucleus.NucleusClient("YOUR_SCALE_API_KEY")
dataset = client.get_dataset("YOUR_DATASET_ID")

ref_ids = ["interesting_item_1", "interesting_item_2"]
slice = dataset.create_slice(name="interesting", reference_ids=ref_ids)
Parameters:

slice_id (str)

add_tags(tags)

Tag a slice with custom tag names.

import nucleus client = nucleus.NucleusClient(“YOUR_SCALE_API_KEY”) slc = client.get_slice(“YOUR_SLICE_ID”)

slc.add_tags([“tag_1”, “tag_2”])

Parameters:

tags (List[str]) – list of tag names

Return type:

dict

append(reference_ids=None)

Appends existing DatasetItems from a Dataset to a Slice.

The endpoint expects a list of DatasetItem reference IDs which are set at upload time. The length of reference_ids cannot exceed 10,000 items per request.

Parameters:

reference_ids (Optional[List[str]]) – List of user-defined reference IDs of dataset items or scenes to append to the slice.

Returns:

Dict of the slice_id and the newly appended IDs.

{
    "slice_id": str,
    "new_items": List[str]
}

Raises:

BadRequest – If length of reference_ids is too large (> 10,000 items)

Return type:

dict

dataset_items()

Fetch all DatasetItems contained in the Slice.

We recommend using Slice.items_generator() if the Slice has more than 200k items.

Returns: list of DatasetItem objects

export_embeddings(asynchronous=True)

Fetches a pd.DataFrame-ready list of slice embeddings.

Parameters:

asynchronous (bool) – Whether or not to process the export asynchronously (and return an EmbeddingsExportJob object). Default is True.

Returns:

If synchronous, a list where each element is a columnar mapping:

List[{
    "reference_id": str,
    "embedding_vector": List[float]
}]

Otherwise, returns an EmbeddingsExportJob object.

Return type:

Union[List[Dict[str, Union[str, List[float]]]], nucleus.async_job.EmbeddingsExportJob]

export_predictions(model)

Provides a list of all DatasetItems and Predictions in the Slice for the given Model.

Parameters:

model (Model) – the nucleus model objects representing the model for which to export predictions.

Returns:

List where each element is a dict containing the DatasetItem and all of its associated Predictions, grouped by type (e.g. box).

List[{
    "item": DatasetItem,
    "predictions": {
        "box": List[BoxAnnotation],
        "polygon": List[PolygonAnnotation],
        "cuboid": List[CuboidAnnotation],
        "segmentation": List[SegmentationAnnotation],
        "category": List[CategoryAnnotation],
    }
}]

Return type:

List[Dict[str, Union[nucleus.dataset_item.DatasetItem, Dict[str, List[nucleus.annotation.Annotation]]]]]

export_predictions_generator(model)

Provides a list of all DatasetItems and Predictions in the Slice for the given Model.

Parameters:

model (Model) – the nucleus model objects representing the model for which to export predictions.

Returns:

Iterable where each element is a dict containing the DatasetItem and all of its associated Predictions, grouped by type (e.g. box).

List[{
    "item": DatasetItem,
    "predictions": {
        "box": List[BoxAnnotation],
        "polygon": List[PolygonAnnotation],
        "cuboid": List[CuboidAnnotation],
        "segmentation": List[SegmentationAnnotation],
        "category": List[CategoryAnnotation],
    }
}]

Return type:

Iterable[Dict[str, Union[nucleus.dataset_item.DatasetItem, Dict[str, List[nucleus.annotation.Annotation]]]]]

export_raw_items()

Fetches a list of accessible URLs for each item in the Slice.

Returns:

List where each element is a dict containing a DatasetItem and its accessible (signed) Scale URL.

List[{
    "id": str,
    "ref_id": str,
    "metadata": Dict[str, Union[str, int]],
    "original_url": str,
    "scale_url": str
}]

Return type:

List[Dict[str, str]]

export_raw_json()

Exports object slices in a raw JSON format. Note that it currently does not support item-level slices.

For each object or match in an object slice, this method exports the following information: - The item that contains the object. - The prediction and/or annotation (both, if the slice is based on IOU matches). - If the object is part of a scene, it includes scene-level attributes in the export.

Returns:

An iterable where each element is a dictionary containing JSON-formatted data.

List[{
    "item": DatasetItem (as JSON),
    "annotation": BoxAnnotation/CuboidAnnotation (as JSON)
    "prediction": BoxPrediction/CuboidPrediction (as JSON)
    "scene": Scene (as JSON)
    }
}]

Return type:

List[Union[nucleus.dataset_item.DatasetItem, nucleus.annotation.Annotation, nucleus.prediction.Prediction, nucleus.scene.Scene]]

export_scale_task_info()

Fetches info for all linked Scale tasks of items/scenes in the slice.

Returns:

A list of dicts, each with two keys, respectively mapping to items/scenes and info on their corresponding Scale tasks within the dataset:

List[{
    "item" | "scene": Union[DatasetItem, Scene],
    "scale_task_info": {
        "task_id": str,
        "task_status": str,
        "task_audit_status": str,
        "task_audit_review_comment": Optional[str],
        "project_name": str,
        "batch": str,
        "created_at": str,
        "completed_at": Optional[str]
    }]
}]

info()

Retrieves the name, slice_id, and dataset_id of the Slice.

Returns:

A dict mapping keys to the corresponding info retrieved.

{
    "name": Union[str, int],
    "slice_id": str,
    "dataset_id": str,
    "type": str
    "pending_job_count": int
    "created_at": datetime
    "description": Union[str, None]
    "tags":
}

Return type:

dict

items_and_annotation_generator()

Provides a generator of all DatasetItems and Annotations in the slice.

Returns:

Generator where each element is a dict containing the DatasetItem and all of its associated Annotations, grouped by type (e.g. box).

Iterable[{
    "item": DatasetItem,
    "annotations": {
        "box": List[BoxAnnotation],
        "polygon": List[PolygonAnnotation],
        "cuboid": List[CuboidAnnotation],
        "line": List[LineAnnotation],
        "segmentation": List[SegmentationAnnotation],
        "category": List[CategoryAnnotation],
        "keypoints": List[KeypointsAnnotation],
    }
}]

Return type:

Iterable[Dict[str, Union[nucleus.dataset_item.DatasetItem, Dict[str, List[nucleus.annotation.Annotation]]]]]

items_and_annotations()

Provides a list of all DatasetItems and Annotations in the Slice.

Returns:

List where each element is a dict containing the DatasetItem and all of its associated Annotations, grouped by type (e.g. box).

List[{
    "item": DatasetItem,
    "annotations": {
        "box": List[BoxAnnotation],
        "polygon": List[PolygonAnnotation],
        "cuboid": List[CuboidAnnotation],
        "line": List[LineAnnotation],
        "segmentation": List[SegmentationAnnotation],
        "category": List[CategoryAnnotation],
        "keypoints": List[KeypointsAnnotation],
    }
}]

Return type:

List[Dict[str, Union[nucleus.dataset_item.DatasetItem, Dict[str, List[nucleus.annotation.Annotation]]]]]

items_generator(page_size=100000)

Generator yielding all dataset items in the dataset.

collected_ref_ids = []
for item in dataset.items_generator():
    print(f"Exporting item: {item.reference_id}")
    collected_ref_ids.append(item.reference_id)
Parameters:

page_size (int, optional) – Number of items to return per page. If you are experiencing timeouts while using this generator, you can try lowering the page size.

Yields:

an iterable of DatasetItem objects.

send_to_labeling(project_id)

Send items in the Slice as tasks to a Scale labeling project.

This endpoint submits the items of the Slice as tasks to a pre-existing Scale Annotation project uniquely identified by projectId. Only projects of type General Image Annotation are currently supported. Additionally, in order for task submission to succeed, the project must have task instructions and geometries configured as project-level parameters. In order to create a project or set project parameters, you must use the Scale Annotation API, which is documented here: Scale Annotation API Documentation. When the newly created annotation tasks are annotated, the annotations will be automatically reflected in the Nucleus platform.

For self-serve projects, user can choose to submit the slice as a calibration batch, which is recommended for brand new labeling projects. For more information about calibration batches, please reference Overview of Self Serve Workflow. Note: A batch can be either a calibration batch or a self label batch, but not both.

Note: Nucleus only supports bounding box, polygon, and line annotations. If the project parameters specify any other geometries (ellipses or points), those objects will be annotated, but they will not be reflected in Nucleus.

Parameters:

project_id (str) – Scale-defined ID of the target annotation project.

class nucleus.slice.SliceBuilderFilterAutotag

Helper class for specifying an autotag filter for building a slice.

Parameters:
  • autotag_id – Filter items that belong to this autotag

  • score_range – Specify the range of the autotag items’ score that should be considered, between [-1, 1]. For example, [-0.3, 0.7].

class nucleus.slice.SliceBuilderFilters

Optionally apply filters to the collection of dataset items when building the slice. Items can be filtered by an existing slice and/or an autotag.

Parameters:
  • slice_id – Build the slice from items pertaining to this slice

  • autotag – Build the slice from items pertaining to an autotag (see SliceBuilderFilterAutotag)

class nucleus.slice.SliceBuilderMethods
Which method to use for sampling the dataset items.
  • Random: randomly select items

  • Uniqueness: Prioritizes more unique images based on model embedding distance, so that the final sample has fewer similar images.

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

capitalize()

Return a capitalized version of the string.

More specifically, make the first character have upper case and the rest lower case.

casefold()

Return a version of the string suitable for caseless comparisons.

center()

Return a centered string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

count()

S.count(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring sub in string S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

encode()

Encode the string using the codec registered for encoding.

encoding

The encoding in which to encode the string.

errors

The error handling scheme to use for encoding errors. The default is ‘strict’ meaning that encoding errors raise a UnicodeEncodeError. Other possible values are ‘ignore’, ‘replace’ and ‘xmlcharrefreplace’ as well as any other name registered with codecs.register_error that can handle UnicodeEncodeErrors.

endswith()

S.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]]) -> bool

Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. suffix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

expandtabs()

Return a copy where all tab characters are expanded using spaces.

If tabsize is not given, a tab size of 8 characters is assumed.

find()

S.find(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

format()

S.format(*args, **kwargs) -> str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from args and kwargs. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{’ and ‘}’).

format_map()

S.format_map(mapping) -> str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from mapping. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{’ and ‘}’).

index()

S.index(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

isalnum()

Return True if the string is an alpha-numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is alpha-numeric if all characters in the string are alpha-numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isalpha()

Return True if the string is an alphabetic string, False otherwise.

A string is alphabetic if all characters in the string are alphabetic and there is at least one character in the string.

isascii()

Return True if all characters in the string are ASCII, False otherwise.

ASCII characters have code points in the range U+0000-U+007F. Empty string is ASCII too.

isdecimal()

Return True if the string is a decimal string, False otherwise.

A string is a decimal string if all characters in the string are decimal and there is at least one character in the string.

isdigit()

Return True if the string is a digit string, False otherwise.

A string is a digit string if all characters in the string are digits and there is at least one character in the string.

isidentifier()

Return True if the string is a valid Python identifier, False otherwise.

Call keyword.iskeyword(s) to test whether string s is a reserved identifier, such as “def” or “class”.

islower()

Return True if the string is a lowercase string, False otherwise.

A string is lowercase if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

isnumeric()

Return True if the string is a numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is numeric if all characters in the string are numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isprintable()

Return True if the string is printable, False otherwise.

A string is printable if all of its characters are considered printable in repr() or if it is empty.

isspace()

Return True if the string is a whitespace string, False otherwise.

A string is whitespace if all characters in the string are whitespace and there is at least one character in the string.

istitle()

Return True if the string is a title-cased string, False otherwise.

In a title-cased string, upper- and title-case characters may only follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.

isupper()

Return True if the string is an uppercase string, False otherwise.

A string is uppercase if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

join()

Concatenate any number of strings.

The string whose method is called is inserted in between each given string. The result is returned as a new string.

Example: ‘.’.join([‘ab’, ‘pq’, ‘rs’]) -> ‘ab.pq.rs’

ljust()

Return a left-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

lower()

Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.

lstrip()

Return a copy of the string with leading whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

name()

The name of the Enum member.

partition()

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing the original string and two empty strings.

removeprefix()

Return a str with the given prefix string removed if present.

If the string starts with the prefix string, return string[len(prefix):]. Otherwise, return a copy of the original string.

removesuffix()

Return a str with the given suffix string removed if present.

If the string ends with the suffix string and that suffix is not empty, return string[:-len(suffix)]. Otherwise, return a copy of the original string.

replace()

Return a copy with all occurrences of substring old replaced by new.

count

Maximum number of occurrences to replace. -1 (the default value) means replace all occurrences.

If the optional argument count is given, only the first count occurrences are replaced.

rfind()

S.rfind(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

rindex()

S.rindex(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

rjust()

Return a right-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

rpartition()

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string, starting at the end. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing two empty strings and the original string.

rsplit()

Return a list of the substrings in the string, using sep as the separator string.

sep

The separator used to split the string.

When set to None (the default value), will split on any whitespace character (including \n \r \t \f and spaces) and will discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits (starting from the left). -1 (the default value) means no limit.

Splitting starts at the end of the string and works to the front.

rstrip()

Return a copy of the string with trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

split()

Return a list of the substrings in the string, using sep as the separator string.

sep

The separator used to split the string.

When set to None (the default value), will split on any whitespace character (including \n \r \t \f and spaces) and will discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits (starting from the left). -1 (the default value) means no limit.

Note, str.split() is mainly useful for data that has been intentionally delimited. With natural text that includes punctuation, consider using the regular expression module.

splitlines()

Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line boundaries.

Line breaks are not included in the resulting list unless keepends is given and true.

startswith()

S.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]]) -> bool

Return True if S starts with the specified prefix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. prefix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

strip()

Return a copy of the string with leading and trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

swapcase()

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase and lowercase characters to uppercase.

title()

Return a version of the string where each word is titlecased.

More specifically, words start with uppercased characters and all remaining cased characters have lower case.

translate()

Replace each character in the string using the given translation table.

table

Translation table, which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to Unicode ordinals, strings, or None.

The table must implement lookup/indexing via __getitem__, for instance a dictionary or list. If this operation raises LookupError, the character is left untouched. Characters mapped to None are deleted.

upper()

Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.

value()

The value of the Enum member.

zfill()

Pad a numeric string with zeros on the left, to fill a field of the given width.

The string is never truncated.

class nucleus.slice.SliceType

Types of slices supported by Nucleus.

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

capitalize()

Return a capitalized version of the string.

More specifically, make the first character have upper case and the rest lower case.

casefold()

Return a version of the string suitable for caseless comparisons.

center()

Return a centered string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

count()

S.count(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring sub in string S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

encode()

Encode the string using the codec registered for encoding.

encoding

The encoding in which to encode the string.

errors

The error handling scheme to use for encoding errors. The default is ‘strict’ meaning that encoding errors raise a UnicodeEncodeError. Other possible values are ‘ignore’, ‘replace’ and ‘xmlcharrefreplace’ as well as any other name registered with codecs.register_error that can handle UnicodeEncodeErrors.

endswith()

S.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]]) -> bool

Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. suffix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

expandtabs()

Return a copy where all tab characters are expanded using spaces.

If tabsize is not given, a tab size of 8 characters is assumed.

find()

S.find(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

format()

S.format(*args, **kwargs) -> str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from args and kwargs. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{’ and ‘}’).

format_map()

S.format_map(mapping) -> str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from mapping. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{’ and ‘}’).

index()

S.index(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

isalnum()

Return True if the string is an alpha-numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is alpha-numeric if all characters in the string are alpha-numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isalpha()

Return True if the string is an alphabetic string, False otherwise.

A string is alphabetic if all characters in the string are alphabetic and there is at least one character in the string.

isascii()

Return True if all characters in the string are ASCII, False otherwise.

ASCII characters have code points in the range U+0000-U+007F. Empty string is ASCII too.

isdecimal()

Return True if the string is a decimal string, False otherwise.

A string is a decimal string if all characters in the string are decimal and there is at least one character in the string.

isdigit()

Return True if the string is a digit string, False otherwise.

A string is a digit string if all characters in the string are digits and there is at least one character in the string.

isidentifier()

Return True if the string is a valid Python identifier, False otherwise.

Call keyword.iskeyword(s) to test whether string s is a reserved identifier, such as “def” or “class”.

islower()

Return True if the string is a lowercase string, False otherwise.

A string is lowercase if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

isnumeric()

Return True if the string is a numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is numeric if all characters in the string are numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isprintable()

Return True if the string is printable, False otherwise.

A string is printable if all of its characters are considered printable in repr() or if it is empty.

isspace()

Return True if the string is a whitespace string, False otherwise.

A string is whitespace if all characters in the string are whitespace and there is at least one character in the string.

istitle()

Return True if the string is a title-cased string, False otherwise.

In a title-cased string, upper- and title-case characters may only follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.

isupper()

Return True if the string is an uppercase string, False otherwise.

A string is uppercase if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

join()

Concatenate any number of strings.

The string whose method is called is inserted in between each given string. The result is returned as a new string.

Example: ‘.’.join([‘ab’, ‘pq’, ‘rs’]) -> ‘ab.pq.rs’

ljust()

Return a left-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

lower()

Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.

lstrip()

Return a copy of the string with leading whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

name()

The name of the Enum member.

partition()

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing the original string and two empty strings.

removeprefix()

Return a str with the given prefix string removed if present.

If the string starts with the prefix string, return string[len(prefix):]. Otherwise, return a copy of the original string.

removesuffix()

Return a str with the given suffix string removed if present.

If the string ends with the suffix string and that suffix is not empty, return string[:-len(suffix)]. Otherwise, return a copy of the original string.

replace()

Return a copy with all occurrences of substring old replaced by new.

count

Maximum number of occurrences to replace. -1 (the default value) means replace all occurrences.

If the optional argument count is given, only the first count occurrences are replaced.

rfind()

S.rfind(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

rindex()

S.rindex(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

rjust()

Return a right-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

rpartition()

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string, starting at the end. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing two empty strings and the original string.

rsplit()

Return a list of the substrings in the string, using sep as the separator string.

sep

The separator used to split the string.

When set to None (the default value), will split on any whitespace character (including \n \r \t \f and spaces) and will discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits (starting from the left). -1 (the default value) means no limit.

Splitting starts at the end of the string and works to the front.

rstrip()

Return a copy of the string with trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

split()

Return a list of the substrings in the string, using sep as the separator string.

sep

The separator used to split the string.

When set to None (the default value), will split on any whitespace character (including \n \r \t \f and spaces) and will discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits (starting from the left). -1 (the default value) means no limit.

Note, str.split() is mainly useful for data that has been intentionally delimited. With natural text that includes punctuation, consider using the regular expression module.

splitlines()

Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line boundaries.

Line breaks are not included in the resulting list unless keepends is given and true.

startswith()

S.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]]) -> bool

Return True if S starts with the specified prefix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. prefix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

strip()

Return a copy of the string with leading and trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

swapcase()

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase and lowercase characters to uppercase.

title()

Return a version of the string where each word is titlecased.

More specifically, words start with uppercased characters and all remaining cased characters have lower case.

translate()

Replace each character in the string using the given translation table.

table

Translation table, which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to Unicode ordinals, strings, or None.

The table must implement lookup/indexing via __getitem__, for instance a dictionary or list. If this operation raises LookupError, the character is left untouched. Characters mapped to None are deleted.

upper()

Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.

value()

The value of the Enum member.

zfill()

Pad a numeric string with zeros on the left, to fill a field of the given width.

The string is never truncated.